In the beginning, stock-car racing was exactly what it sounds like. Drivers actually bought brand-new cars from dealers and went racing. The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), organized in 1947, created a standardized set of rules for stock-car racing and established a system for selecting a national champion based on performance at races across the country.
The original races were run on dirt tracks that got rutted and bumpy. The unmodified cars were not tough enough for this type of abuse, so NASCAR began allowing modifications to the stock cars to increase their durability. Over the years, more and more modifications were made, sometimes to increase safety (see How NASCAR Safety Works for details) and sometimes to improve competition. NASCAR strictly controls all of these modifications, which are spelled out in detail in the NASCAR rule book. Cars are checked for compliance with these rules at every race.
Today, NASCAR race cars have very little in common with street cars. Almost every detail of a NASCAR car is handmade. The bodies are built from flat sheet metal, the engines are assembled from a bare block and the frame is constructed from steel tubing.
In this article, we'll see how these race cars are made, starting with a component that is key to the drivers' safety and provides the foundation for everything on the car: the frame.
Have you decided that it's time to find a Ferrari for sale? Are you not sure what you can do to make shopping for one less stressful? You are in the right place if so. Here you'll go over a few of the things you need to think of when you go car shopping, so read along.
Don't forget to look into the cost of parts for a vehicle before you buy it. Some cars, especially imports, cost significantly more to maintain than others. Investigate the cost of parts that wear out frequently, such as tires, brakes, and windshield wiper blades. Research the cost of alternators, spark plugs, and other engine components, too.
Shop around before you even go to the dealership. If you spend some time on local dealer's websites, you can learn about incentives that are offered. If you know what one dealership is offering, you can use it as a negotiating point and may be able to get a better deal.
When sitting at the bargaining table, take the time to negotiate the price of the car before talking about your trade-in. Doing this will help you get the best price on both vehicles. To do this effectively do not discuss trade-ins until after you have settled on a price of the new vehicle.
Consider selling your car privately, rather than trading it in for the new car you want. You will almost always get more for your car through a private sale than you would through a trade in. Even if the dealership makes it sound like they are giving you a great trade in value, they will likely raise the price somewhere else to make up for the difference.
If you aren't concerned about getting the absolutely latest model, consider car shopping in November or December. During this time frame, dealerships will offer deals on the current models. They want to clear out their inventory to make way for shipments of the next year's models. This means that you will be offered more incentives, lower sticker prices, and more room to negotiate!
If you are trading your car in, take it to a detail shop and have the upholstery and carpets cleaned along with a wash and wax. Doing this one thing can usually net you several hundred dollars or more in trade-in value compared to a car that isn't clean.
If you plan to trade in your old car, find out how much it's worth and factor that into your budget. If you think, your car is worth a lot, and it's not, you may be in for a shock when you reach the lot. Knowing as much as possible before you leave your house is the key.
Do not get all the extras offered during the negotiation. These things include extended warranties, clear coat and fabric care options. You can generally purchase these features after you have bought the car for a fraction of the price. Also, do yo really want to be paying for these few features over the length of the loan.
If you are thinking about buying a car that is still under warranty. You need to make sure that whatever is left of the vehicle warranty is in writing. You don't want to purchase a car only to find out that the warranty has been void, leaving you paying extra for nothing.
Check out how much repairs on a car would cost before buying it. You should be able to get a fair idea of what kinds of costs you will have to pay for repairs. And that's not just for when it is under warranty. What happens when you have to pay full price for an ignition coil? Different cars cost different amounts, so find out.
When looking to buy a new or used vehicle, make sure that you never elude to the fact of how much money you have on your person. You only want to talk about what you think you should put down in regards to the terms and price of the vehicle being discussed.
This guide should have helped you learn all that there is to know about car shopping. It doesn't have to be that a difficult task if you know exactly what you're doing. Take the advice and you'll be able to take most of the stress out of shopping for a car.
It seems to be a pattern in the early decades of technological advances that the military would quickly become interested in the ways in which new ideas could be used by the army, navy or air force. This has happened to some extent in the hovercraft industry, but not so much as expected. Large passenger craft have been used, and are still being developed, but the big growth of air cushioned vehicle use is in the leisure industry. The first use of small hovercraft was as a golf caddie, which was probably intended to allow a vehicle to over over pristine greens without damaging the grass. Other activities include racing, search and rescue and also family fun!
Racing hovercraft represent fun in the extreme, and many racers wouldn't be involved in the sport without some element of danger, which the sport delivers aplenty. Imagine speeding along at up to 80kms an hour and the only thing between you and the ground is a cushion of air. There are no tires to grip the road when you brake, and no propeller or rudder in the water to rapidly slow you down like a boat. Change of direction is by handlebar steering, much like you would find on motor bike or quad bike, but this only has a limited effect. To get full impact, it's necessary to throw the body to one side to turn corners!
Search and rescue is a very interesting development for the industry, because they can go where other vehicles can't, quite obviously. A boat is limited to the water, and wheeled vehicles can easily get bogged down in slush, mud or wet sand. For reaching accident victims in areas with wet marsh land, for example, the hovercraft can't be beat. It can carry up to six people easily and can settle down on any surface, making it an ideal vehicle for reaching disaster areas fast. Whole fleet of air cushioned craft are ow in use in isolated places in Canada and also Australia.
Leisure and fun is probably the biggest growth area for the industry as a whole, particularly as people are looking for new thrills and experiences. A four seat hovercraft is not that expensive, something like 10 000 dollars, so well within the reach of many families and ideal of you have kids. The biggest question raised by someone buying such a vehilcle is - are hovercraft safe? Safety is at a premium for this kind of buyer, and once again the industry has responded with a very safe product.
For many decades, the hovercraft principle was mooted as a useful possibility for passenger transport, but there were a few anomolies that just wouldn't go away. the basic idea of lifting a vehicle n a cushion of air was good, but keeping the air cushion in place, that was the challenge. In the 50s a man called Anthony Thornycroft solved the puzzle by designing a special skirt arrangement that dramatically reduced the energy need to float a given vehicle weight. He found that by fixing a small coffee tin inside larger one with holes in the bottom, and pushing air between them, an annular effect was created which reduced the power requirement by 60% - not bad at all!
Basically, the solution meant that viable hovercraft could be built because the energy need to float even a big craft was something like 30% of the energy need to lift a helicopter of the same size, for example. Sanderson-Coe, a British company were the first to produce large hovercraft for carrying cars and passengers across the British Channel, and was followed by several others. This new technology was the buzz word in the 60s and 70s, but all the companies went bust within just a few years. The industry laid dormant for a while, because the craft were expensive to maintain and didn't bring the comfort of other forms of travel such as the ferry. Off course, now we have the Channel Tunnel.
Probably the tiniest of the small hovercraft for sale is produced by Hovery in Brazil. This DIY package is self-inflated and is designed for some serious fun, but has few other uses. Other 4 and 6 seat hovercraft manufacturers however produce vehicles that can be used for search and rescue, or military use - see design site. New construction materials have revolutionized the industry and continues to evolve. For example, modern hull construction uses advanced materials like expanded high density polypropylene, which doesn't split if it hits a rock.
Hovercraft skirts have also undergone a complete makeover as new idea have evolved about how they should be constructed, and with what materials. Rip-stop nylon principles still apply, but newer fabrics are covered in tough rubber-like sheaths such as neoprene. Some manufacturers use Kevlar, which is used by the military and is extremely tough - in fact it's bullet proof, so well able to withstand the rigors of hovercraft travel!
Are you looking for cheap cars for sale in Kent? While your search won't end here, you will be able to get the information that you need. There are a lot of things you'll need to consider before you purchase your new automobile. These simple tips will help you find a vehicle that you'll love.
Set Some Limits In Advance
It's a good idea to figure out what you want and don't want in a car before you start your search. That way, you won't wind up with a vehicle that you'll be unhappy with.
For example, if you need a car with an air conditioning unit, don't look at cars that don't have one. If you need a car below a certain price point, don't look at cars that cost more. Setting limits can help keep you from making choices that you'll regret.
Look For A Good Value, Not A Low Price Tag
While you should definitely set a budget and stick to it, a low price shouldn't be your only focus. After all, a cheap car won't do you much good if you can't count on it to run!
Make sure that the car you buy is both reliable and affordable. It makes more sense to buy a pricier car that runs well than a cheap car that'll need a lot of expensive work.
Think About Going To An Auto Dealer
A lot of people like to buy cars from private sellers because their prices are so low. However, you don't have much in the way of security when you buy a car privately. You'll be a lot better off if you buy a car from a trustworthy car dealer.
There are a number of dealers in the Kent area that have solid reputations. You should strongly consider buying a car from one of them such as Robert Miles Ltd
Think About Financing
Sometimes, it makes a lot more sense to finance your car than it does to pay for everything up front. That way, you can get a car that won't need costly work without spending more than you can reasonably afford.
When you visit a car dealership, take a look at your financing options. See how low your monthly payments could be, and see what kind of down payment you would need to make. After that, you can decide whether you'd prefer to pay in full or go month by month.
Don't Be Afraid To Take Your Time
A car isn't the sort of purchase that you should rush into. After all, you'll be spending a lot of time in the vehicle you buy.
While you may have some sort of time limit on your purchase, you shouldn't feel as though you have to choose your car immediately. If you're not comfortable with something, don't go through with it. You don't want to have any regrets later on.
There are a lot of cheap cars for sale in Kent. Take a good look at them and find one you'd be happy with.
A deep cycle battery can be used in large vehicles and vessels such as an RV or other types of boats. It can also be used for entertainment vehicles like childrens rides and golf carts. The batteries are environment-friendly since they are recyclable.
A deep cycle battery is a lead acid battery that offers time release nature in the energy release compared to the standard battery. It offers a quick burst or energy discharge in a kick start way. There are different kinds of deep cycle batteries.
Deep cycle batteries are meant to last a long time because their function is extended load use. Each type of battery has different will last for a different length of time. For example, an RV deep cycle battery may last for about 8 years or more while a boat battery may last for about 5 or 6 years.
Deep cycle batteries can last for a very long time with good maintenance. If you are buying the deep battery for your RV or boat, or something you would wish to travel great distances, it is wise to buy a Trojan battery which is a backup power source.
Deep cycle batteries are known for their ability to be discharged in a deep manner on a regular basis which is not possible with the standard battery as this can destroy it. It is ideal for providing power in a constant manner over a long period of time because of their longer deep cycles.
Nowadays, the batteries are used to operate solar powered devices. They are used in windmills and other solar powered devices. You may also need them as backup power supplies if you want to install solar powered devices.
When the batteries are low on charge, make sure you recharge as soon as possible. If the battery is left uncharged, it may end up degrading their condition making the batteries useless. However, you need to avoid undercharging or overcharging.
Overcharging can cause the liquid to evaporate faster. Undercharging will increase the pollutant build up at a faster rate. These two problems will shorten the life span of the deep batteries. To avoid these two problems, you have to make sure that your system should have a circuit.
Make sure you have enough deep cycle batteries to sufficiently handle your power needs. The batteries will become undersized if you are undersized for your needs. It is safer to have more capacity than what you need.
All those who are interested in learning to ride a motorcycle should always ensure they take all the safety measures first. Safety will begin with wearing the appropriate gears for the type of learning you want to embark on. Learners should also enroll in motorcycle safety courses that they will be given proper guidance and skills on how to safely and properly ride.
Learning to ride
The first and most important step in getting yourself enrolled in a motorcycle safety course. The course will provide one with correct tools for learning both safety rules to observe and techniques while riding. One might be provided with a motorbike to use while enrolled in a course and this is very advantageous for those who do not have a one of their own. After the end of a series of lessons, one will have acquired basics of operation and safety. This will enable you to apply for the appropriate license for your bike class.
One should always familiarize themselves with the basic controls on the motorcycle before they begin to ride. Riding will require quick thinking and without the basics knowledge of the controls, one might find themselves in dangerous situations while riding. Learn about controls like the hand clutch located on the left handlebar; this is used for disengaging the power when shifting gears. The gear shifter, located on the left foot is used for changing one gear down or up while re-pulling the clutch lever. The throttle, on the right handlebar, is used to accelerate the bike. On the right handlebar is the handbrake that is used to apply brakes on the front wheel.
Get on the bike
One should always get on the bike from the left side of the motorcycle. You get hold of the left handlebar; swing your right foot over the motorcycles seat. The left foot should be firmly standing on the ground while the right foot is stepping on the rear gears on the right of the bike. Before starting the bike, go through the functions on the bike to get to know where every one of them is located. Make sure you can reach the handlebar making sure your hands have a bend on the elbow, the clutch lever and the brake levers comfortable. Make sure also the switches on the handlebar are within reach by your fingers.
Turn your key to ignition, put your bike to neutral by downshifting to first gear and shift up once. Push the start button, and the engine will be on. The bike will warm up for like 30 seconds before the engine is ready. Pull the clutch lever back and the bike will pull itself forward. Therefore, to learn to ride a motorcycle repeat all the above many times.
Small personal hovercraft are fast becoming the expensive preferred toy of the younger set with enough money to enjoy themselves. A world class hover craft manufacturer will charge between 10000 and 15000 USD for such an air cushioned vehicle, depending on the options chosen. Such options may include a choice of engines, color (obviously) and additional features such as extra storage space, harnesses or short wave radio. Engine choice is an important point to consider before you buy a hovercraft.
Two stroke engines are common. These tend to be noisier and run at higher revolutions than their four stroke cousins and the fuel used is different. A two stroke hovercraft engine uses a lower octane mixture of gas (petrol) mixed with 2% oil. Basically, this means that the engine parts are lubricated by the oil mixed in with the fuel. A disadvantage of this is that the fuel needs to be mixed yourself, or either bought ready to use, which is expensive. The big advantage is that a two stroke engine is generally cheaper pound for pound, but is also noisier, particularly when used for lift and forward thrust applied to an ACV.
A four stroke motor has an oil reservoir, or sump, which is kept to a certain level and a pump moves it around the engine to ensure that all moving parts don't wear too much. Actually, the moving parts of an engine should never touch - a film of oil always separates their surfaces. A four stroke engine may be air or water cooled, depending on the size of the craft and it's intended use. Such uses can include leisure, rescue and survey operations both on dry land and over water.
The best hovercraft manufacturers design an engine compartment as part of the hull construction. This keeps the engine a little quieter and it's also safer in the event that it malfunctions, for example. A robust lid gives good access for maintenance and this can be locked securely until access is required. With clever hovercraft design, such a compartment could be sunk a little into the hull material without compromising it's impact strength, thereby optimizing space for passengers and equipment.
Smaller vehicles tend to use just one motor and ducting is used to redirect air flow downwards for upwards thrust, and to the rear for forward propulsion. It's obvious that a two motor machine will have more power for lift and thrust, and this may be necessary for machines designed for a heavy payload, or regularly lifting off water. However, such an arrangement will inevitably mean more noise and ear protection is recommended for all the family.
Have you been suffering the usual signs indicating your battery may be about to fail , you might have been experiencing some electrical trouble , slow starting or maybe its just getting near its average age lifespan which is generally 2-4 years.
If its too late and you find yourself stranded with a completely dead car battery, you might to consider finding a local mobile car battery replacement service in your area.
If your thinking about changing it yourself , this gives you a general idea of the steps you need to take . Double check the car manufacturers guide before actually attempting to do so.
Don't get caught out starting to change the car battery and find you have the wrong one or you don't have the correct tools to complete the job.
If your car has special requirements , and your not comfortable changing your battery, its best to appoint a car battery repair specialist.
General Battery Swap Out Procedure.
Step 1 Everything Must Be Switched Off
Ensure you have turned everything off and keys are removed from ignition.
Step 2 Where's the battery.
The most common places you will find the battery are under the hood, in the boot, or under the seats.
Step 3 Un-doing the battery clamps.
Car Batteries are normally held down with a clamp, which will either be placed across the top or at the base of the battery. You will need either need a spanner or socket to undo.
Step 4 Trying to Save Electrical Settings.
Your vehicle probably has electrical settings saved in its memory, these could possibly lost if you disconnect your battery without an external power back up. These can usually be purchased on line or at a auto shop for a reasonable cost.
Step 5 Time To Detach The Battery.
Make sure the area you are working in is clear and easy to access, if your using external power be careful as the battery leads will still be powered when detached.
Disconnecting the battery leads
(Disconnect The Negative Lead 1st).
Start by undoing and detaching the negative lead first , it will have the - (minus) sign on it or the show on the battery itself.
(Disconnect The Positive Lead Next).
Once you have the negative lead off , proceed to take off the positive terminal next which has the + (plus) sign on it .
After you have the leads removed shift them out of the way , so they do not come into contact with anything else and you can remove the old battery easily.
Step 6. Fitting The New Battery.
Before you lift the new battery into place , make sure the area is clear and battery leads are not in the way. Place the new battery into its location.
(Connect the Positive Terminal ).
Attach the positive lead onto the positive battery terminal first , make sure its pushed down and secure. Tighten the nut or bolt back up.
(Secure the Negative Terminal 2nd).
Next you want to attach the negative lead, make sure its secure and tightened. If you battery has a eternal vent pipe , connect it now.
Step 7 Remove Any External Power Connected.
Once you have the new car battery in place and hooked up, make sure if you have any external power connected you disconnect it before starting the vehicle.
Step 8. Start The Car And Test.
Once your happy , proceed to start the car and test everything is working.
Step 9. Secure The Battery Back Down.
Now you have started the vehicle and are confident that all is ok, refit the battery hold down ,make sure you do not make connection with the live battery terminals and the battery is secure.
Well done you should now have your new car battery fitted and everything working as it should.