In the beginning, stock-car racing was exactly what it sounds like. Drivers actually bought brand-new cars from dealers and went racing. The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), organized in 1947, created a standardized set of rules for stock-car racing and established a system for selecting a national champion based on performance at races across the country.
The original races were run on dirt tracks that got rutted and bumpy. The unmodified cars were not tough enough for this type of abuse, so NASCAR began allowing modifications to the stock cars to increase their durability. Over the years, more and more modifications were made, sometimes to increase safety (see How NASCAR Safety Works for details) and sometimes to improve competition. NASCAR strictly controls all of these modifications, which are spelled out in detail in the NASCAR rule book. Cars are checked for compliance with these rules at every race.
Today, NASCAR race cars have very little in common with street cars. Almost every detail of a NASCAR car is handmade. The bodies are built from flat sheet metal, the engines are assembled from a bare block and the frame is constructed from steel tubing.
In this article, we'll see how these race cars are made, starting with a component that is key to the drivers' safety and provides the foundation for everything on the car: the frame.
Small personal hovercraft are fast becoming the expensive preferred toy of the younger set with enough money to enjoy themselves. A world class hover craft manufacturer will charge between 10000 and 15000 USD for such an air cushioned vehicle, depending on the options chosen. Such options may include a choice of engines, color (obviously) and additional features such as extra storage space, harnesses or short wave radio. Engine choice is an important point to consider before you buy a hovercraft.
Two stroke engines are common. These tend to be noisier and run at higher revolutions than their four stroke cousins and the fuel used is different. A two stroke hovercraft engine uses a lower octane mixture of gas (petrol) mixed with 2% oil. Basically, this means that the engine parts are lubricated by the oil mixed in with the fuel. A disadvantage of this is that the fuel needs to be mixed yourself, or either bought ready to use, which is expensive. The big advantage is that a two stroke engine is generally cheaper pound for pound, but is also noisier, particularly when used for lift and forward thrust applied to an ACV.
A four stroke motor has an oil reservoir, or sump, which is kept to a certain level and a pump moves it around the engine to ensure that all moving parts don't wear too much. Actually, the moving parts of an engine should never touch - a film of oil always separates their surfaces. A four stroke engine may be air or water cooled, depending on the size of the craft and it's intended use. Such uses can include leisure, rescue and survey operations both on dry land and over water.
The best hovercraft manufacturers design an engine compartment as part of the hull construction. This keeps the engine a little quieter and it's also safer in the event that it malfunctions, for example. A robust lid gives good access for maintenance and this can be locked securely until access is required. With clever hovercraft design, such a compartment could be sunk a little into the hull material without compromising it's impact strength, thereby optimizing space for passengers and equipment.
Smaller vehicles tend to use just one motor and ducting is used to redirect air flow downwards for upwards thrust, and to the rear for forward propulsion. It's obvious that a two motor machine will have more power for lift and thrust, and this may be necessary for machines designed for a heavy payload, or regularly lifting off water. However, such an arrangement will inevitably mean more noise and ear protection is recommended for all the family.
Have you been suffering the usual signs indicating your battery may be about to fail , you might have been experiencing some electrical trouble , slow starting or maybe its just getting near its average age lifespan which is generally 2-4 years.
If its too late and you find yourself stranded with a completely dead car battery, you might to consider finding a local mobile car battery replacement service in your area.
If your thinking about changing it yourself , this gives you a general idea of the steps you need to take . Double check the car manufacturers guide before actually attempting to do so.
Don't get caught out starting to change the car battery and find you have the wrong one or you don't have the correct tools to complete the job.
If your car has special requirements , and your not comfortable changing your battery, its best to appoint a car battery repair specialist.
General Battery Swap Out Procedure.
Step 1 Everything Must Be Switched Off
Ensure you have turned everything off and keys are removed from ignition.
Step 2 Where's the battery.
The most common places you will find the battery are under the hood, in the boot, or under the seats.
Step 3 Un-doing the battery clamps.
Car Batteries are normally held down with a clamp, which will either be placed across the top or at the base of the battery. You will need either need a spanner or socket to undo.
Step 4 Trying to Save Electrical Settings.
Your vehicle probably has electrical settings saved in its memory, these could possibly lost if you disconnect your battery without an external power back up. These can usually be purchased on line or at a auto shop for a reasonable cost.
Step 5 Time To Detach The Battery.
Make sure the area you are working in is clear and easy to access, if your using external power be careful as the battery leads will still be powered when detached.
Disconnecting the battery leads
(Disconnect The Negative Lead 1st).
Start by undoing and detaching the negative lead first , it will have the - (minus) sign on it or the show on the battery itself.
(Disconnect The Positive Lead Next).
Once you have the negative lead off , proceed to take off the positive terminal next which has the + (plus) sign on it .
After you have the leads removed shift them out of the way , so they do not come into contact with anything else and you can remove the old battery easily.
Step 6. Fitting The New Battery.
Before you lift the new battery into place , make sure the area is clear and battery leads are not in the way. Place the new battery into its location.
(Connect the Positive Terminal ).
Attach the positive lead onto the positive battery terminal first , make sure its pushed down and secure. Tighten the nut or bolt back up.
(Secure the Negative Terminal 2nd).
Next you want to attach the negative lead, make sure its secure and tightened. If you battery has a eternal vent pipe , connect it now.
Step 7 Remove Any External Power Connected.
Once you have the new car battery in place and hooked up, make sure if you have any external power connected you disconnect it before starting the vehicle.
Step 8. Start The Car And Test.
Once your happy , proceed to start the car and test everything is working.
Step 9. Secure The Battery Back Down.
Now you have started the vehicle and are confident that all is ok, refit the battery hold down ,make sure you do not make connection with the live battery terminals and the battery is secure.
Well done you should now have your new car battery fitted and everything working as it should.